Exosomes in Regenerative Medicine
What are exosomes?
In English? Think of it this way:
All throughout the day, your cells are working hard to keep you functioning. On a microscopic level, it looks like a bustling metropolis with millions of transactions occurring to supply life-sustaining information and vital cargo to (1) replenish your cells, (2) build new structures, and (3) dispose of cellular debris.
This is where exosomes help! These small membrane-bound vesicles act like regulation-enforcement agents who oversee and direct that all the other micro and macrocellular components are fulfilling their job description properly, not chaotically.
What happens if the exosomes identify a malfunctioning component?
If a cell or organelle is not performing its duties properly, exosomes will try to regulate systemic functions. And if that doesn’t work, they alert the immune system to attack and get rid of the useless members of your microenvironment.
Life is tough, even for your cells!
But that’s a good thing because exosomes:
- Help get rid of dying, malignant, and mutated cells
- Teach resident cells how to repair themselves and do their job
- Instruct new cells (including stem cells) how to generate new tissue
What medical treatments can exosomes be used for?
- Exosomes play an important role in immune system modulation. In fact, most scientific data available about exosomes originates from immune cells—T lymphocytes, B cells, dendritic cells, and mast cells of the immune system.
- Research shows that increased levels of exosomes promote an antitumor immune response, causing the T cells to attack cancer.
- A regulator by nature, exosomes will use available resources (including your new stem cells), to offset the progression of autoimmune disease and restore proper cellular communication—resulting in system-wide healing.
We use exosomes in the following treatments and more:
How do exosomes upregulate new mesenchymal stem cells?
Exosomes are like cellular coaches who help the new undifferentiated stem cell turn into the type of cell that your body needs and will accept.
In a procedure that never endangers the embryo nor the mother, our cryobank laboratory provides our doctors with certified, legal mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) ethically-sourced from the placenta and Wharton’s Jelly.
Once inside your body, hundreds of millions of these stem cells travel to damaged or decaying sections to repair and rebuild tissue. These stem cells can become any type of natural cell in the body—muscle, tendon, cartilage, bone, nerve, brain cell, blood cell, skin cell, etc.
So exosomes make sure these new builder cells know exactly what to do and how to do it for your unique body. Our doctors continue to adapt to recent studies regarding exosomes to continually provide a successful regenerative experience for our patients.
Bibliography and references:
- Riazifar M, Mohammadi MR, Pone EJ, et al. Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes as Nanotherapeutics for Autoimmune and Neurodegenerative Disorders. ACS Nano. 2019;13(6):6670-6688. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.9b01004
- Edgar, J.R. Q&A: What are exosomes, exactly?. BMC Biol 14, 46 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-016-0268-z
- Xu, Hui et al. “Potential therapeutic applications of exosomes in different autoimmune diseases.” Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.) vol. 205 (2019): 116-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2019.06.006
- Tan, Lina et al. “Recent advances of exosomes in immune modulation and autoimmune diseases.” Autoimmunity vol. 49,6 (2016): 357-365. https://doi.org/10.1080/08916934.2016.1191477
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